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Consolidated Financial Statements for the Years Ended December 31, 2013 and 2012
and Independent Auditors’ Report
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NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
FOR THE YEARS ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2013 AND 2012

4.

SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

The accompanying consolidated financial statements are the first Taiwan-IFRSs annual consolidated financial statements prepared for the year ended December 31, 2013. The Company’s date of transition to Taiwan-IFRSs is January 1, 2012, and the effect of the transition to Taiwan-IFRSs is disclosed in Note 43.

For the convenience of readers, the accompanying consolidated financial statements have been translated into English from the original Chinese version prepared and used in the R.O.C. If there is any conflict between the English version and the original Chinese version or any difference in the interpretation of the two versions, the Chinese-language consolidated financial statements shall prevail.

Significant accounting policies are summarized as follows:

Statement of Compliance

The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared in conformity with the Guidelines Governing the Preparation of Financial Reports by Securities Issuers, the IFRSs, IASs, interpretations as well as related guidance translated by the ARDF endorsed by the FSC with the effective dates.

Basis of Preparation

The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared on the historical cost basis except for financial instruments that are measured at fair values, as explained in the accounting policies below. Historical cost is generally based on the fair value of the consideration given in exchange for the assets.

The opening balance sheet at the date of transition is prepared in accordance with the recognition and measurement required by IFRS 1. According to IFRS 1, the Company is required to apply each effective IFRS retrospectively in its opening balance sheet at the date of transition to Taiwan-IFRSs; except for optional exemptions and mandatory exceptions to such retrospective application provided under IFRS 1. The main optional exemptions the Company adopted are described in Note 43.

Basis of Consolidation

The basis for the consolidated financial statements

The consolidated financial statements incorporate the financial statements of TSMC and entities controlled by TSMC (its subsidiaries). Control is achieved where the Company has the power to govern the financial and operating policies of an entity so as to obtain benefits from its activities.

Income and expenses of subsidiaries acquired or disposed of are included in the consolidated statement of comprehensive income from the effective date of acquisition and up to the effective date of disposal, as appropriate. Total comprehensive income of subsidiaries is attributed to the shareholders of the parent and to the noncontrolling interests even if this results in the noncontrolling interests having a deficit balance.

When necessary, adjustments are made to the financial statements of subsidiaries to bring their accounting policies into line with those used by the Company.

All intra-group transactions, balances, income and expenses are eliminated in full on consolidation.

Changes in the Company’s ownership interests in subsidiaries that do not result in the Company losing control over the subsidiaries are accounted for as equity transactions. The carrying amounts of the Company’s interests and the noncontrolling interests are adjusted to reflect the changes in their relative interests in the subsidiaries. Any difference between the amount by which the noncontrolling interests are adjusted and the fair value of the consideration paid or received is recognized directly in equity and attributed to shareholders of the parent.

When the Company loses control of a subsidiary, a gain or loss is recognized in profit or loss and is calculated as the difference between:

a. the aggregate of the fair value of consideration received and the fair value of any retained interest at the date when control is lost; and
b. the previous carrying amount of the assets (including goodwill), and liabilities of the subsidiary and any noncontrolling interest.

The Company shall account for all amounts recognized in other comprehensive income in relation to the subsidiary on the same basis as would be required if the Company had directly disposed of the related assets and liabilities.

The fair value of any investment retained in the former subsidiary at the date when control is lost is regarded as the cost on initial recognition of an investment in an associate.

The subsidiaries in the consolidated financial statements
The detail information of the subsidiaries at the end of reporting period was as follows:

Foreign Currencies

The financial statements of each individual consolidated entity were expressed in the currency which reflected its primary economic environment (functional currency). The functional currency of TSMC and presentation currency of the consolidated financial statements are both New Taiwan Dollars (NT$). In preparing the consolidated financial statement, the operating results and financial positions of each consolidated entity are translated into NT$.

In preparing the financial statements of each individual consolidated entity, transactions in currencies other than the entity’s functional currency (foreign currencies) are recognized at the rates of exchange prevailing at the dates of the transactions. At the end of each reporting period, monetary items denominated in foreign currencies are retranslated at the rates prevailing at that date. Such exchange differences are recognized in profit or loss in the year in which they arise. Non-monetary items measured at fair value that are denominated in foreign currencies are retranslated at the rates prevailing at the date when the fair value was determined. Exchange differences arising on the retranslation of non-monetary items are included in profit or loss for the year except for exchange differences arising on the retranslation of non-monetary items in respect of which gains and losses are recognized directly in other comprehensive income, in which case, the exchange differences are also recognized directly in other comprehensive income. Non-monetary items that are measured in terms of historical cost in foreign currencies are not retranslated.

For the purposes of presenting consolidated financial statements, the assets and liabilities of the Company’s foreign operations are translated into NT$ using exchange rates prevailing at the end of each reporting period. Income and expense items are translated at the average exchange rates for the period. Exchange differences arising, if any, are recognized in other comprehensive income and accumulated in equity (attributed to noncontrolling interests as appropriate).

Classification of Current and Noncurrent Assets and Liabilities

Current assets are assets held for trading purposes and assets expected to be converted to cash, sold or consumed within one year from the end of the reporting period. Current liabilities are obligations incurred for trading purposes and obligations expected to be settled within one year from the end of the reporting period. Assets and liabilities that are not classified as current are noncurrent assets and liabilities, respectively.

Cash Equivalents

Cash equivalents, for the purpose of meeting short-term cash commitments, consist of highly liquid time deposits and investments that are readily convertible to known amounts of cash and which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value.

Financial Instruments

Financial assets and liabilities shall be recognized when the Company becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instruments.

Financial assets and liabilities are initially recognized at fair values. Transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition or issue of financial assets and financial liabilities (other than financial assets and financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss) are added to or deducted from the fair value of the financial assets or financial liabilities, as appropriate, on initial recognition. Transaction costs directly attributable to the acquisition of financial assets or financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss are recognized immediately in profit or loss. Fair value is determined in the manner described in Note 36.

Financial Assets

Financial assets are classified into the following specified categories: Financial assets “at fair value through profit or loss” (FVTPL), “held-to-maturity” financial assets, “available-for-sale” financial assets and “loans and receivables”. The classification depends on the nature and purpose of the financial assets and is determined at the time of initial recognition. All regular way purchases or sales of financial assets are recognized and derecognized on a settlement date basis. Regular way purchases or sales are purchases or sales of financial assets that require delivery of assets within the time frame established by regulation or convention in the marketplace.

Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss
Derivative financial instruments that do not meet the criteria for hedge accounting are stated at fair value, with any gains or losses arising on remeasurement recognized in profit or loss.

Held-to-maturity financial assets
Held-to-maturity investments are non-derivative financial assets with fixed or determinable payments and fixed maturity dates that the Company has the positive intent and ability to hold to maturity. Subsequent to initial recognition, held-to-maturity financial assets are measured at amortized cost using the effective interest method less any impairment.

Available-for-sale financial assets
Available-for-sale financial assets are non-derivative financial assets that are either designated as available-for-sale or are not classified as (a) loans and receivables, (b) held-to-maturity financial assets or (c) financial assets at fair value through profit or loss.

Stocks and money market funds held by the Company that are traded in an active market are classified as available-for-sale financial assets and are stated at fair value at the end of each reporting period.

Interest income from available-for-sale monetary financial assets and dividends on available-for-sale equity investments are recognized in profit or loss. Other changes in the carrying amount of available-for-sale financial assets are recognized in other comprehensive income. When the investment is disposed of or is determined to be impaired, the cumulative gain or loss previously recognized in other comprehensive income is reclassified to profit or loss.

Dividends on available-for-sale equity instruments are recognized in profit or loss when the Company’s right to receive the dividends is established.

Available-for-sale equity instruments that do not have a quoted market price in an active market and whose fair value cannot be reliably measured are measured at cost less any identified impairment losses at the end of each reporting period. Such equity instruments are subsequently remeasured at fair value when their fair value can be reliably measured, and the difference between the carrying amount and fair value is recognized in profit or loss or other comprehensive income.

Loans and receivables
Loans and receivables are non-derivative financial assets with fixed or determinable payments that are not quoted in an active market. Loans and receivables including cash and cash equivalents, notes and accounts receivable and other receivables are measured at amortized cost using the effective interest method, less any impairment, except for those loans and receivables with immaterial discounted effect.

Impairment of financial assets
Financial assets, other than those carried at FVTPL, are assessed for indicators of impairment at the end of each reporting period. Those financial assets are considered to be impaired when there is objective evidence that, as a result of one or more events that occurred after the initial recognition of the financial assets, their estimated future cash flows have been affected.

For financial assets carried at amortized cost, such as trade receivables, assets that are assessed not to be impaired individually are, in addition, assessed for impairment on a collective basis. The Company assesses the collectability of receivables by performing the account aging analysis and examining current trends in the credit quality of its customers.

For financial assets carried at amortized cost, the amount of the impairment loss is the difference between the asset’s carrying amount and the present value of estimated future cash flows, discounted at the financial asset’s original effective interest rate.

For financial assets measured at amortized cost, if, in a subsequent period, the amount of the impairment loss decreases and the decrease can be related objectively to an event occurring after the impairment loss was recognized, the previously recognized impairment loss is reversed through profit or loss to the extent that the carrying amount of the financial assets at the date the impairment loss is reversed does not exceed what the amortized cost would have been had the impairment loss not been recognized.

When an available-for-sale financial asset is considered to be impaired, cumulative gains or losses previously recognized in other comprehensive income are reclassified to profit or loss in the year.

In respect of available-for-sale equity instruments, impairment losses previously recognized in profit or loss are not reversed through profit or loss. Any increase in fair value subsequent to the recognition of an impairment loss is recognized in other comprehensive income and accumulated under the heading of unrealized gains or losses from available-for-sale financial assets.

For financial assets carried at cost, the amount of the impairment loss is measured as the difference between the asset’s carrying amount and the present value of the estimated future cash flows discounted at the current market rate of return for a similar financial asset. Such impairment loss will not be reversed in subsequent periods.

The carrying amount of the financial asset is reduced by the impairment loss directly for all financial assets with the exception of trade receivables, where the carrying amount is reduced through the use of an allowance account. When a trade receivable is considered uncollectible, it is written off against the allowance account. Subsequent recoveries of amounts previously written off are credited against the allowance account.

Derecognition of financial assets
The Company derecognizes a financial asset only when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the financial asset expire, or when it transfers the financial asset and substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset to another entity.

On derecognition of a financial asset in its entirety, the difference between the financial asset’s carrying amount and the sum of the consideration received and receivable and the cumulative gain or loss that had been recognized in other comprehensive income and accumulated in equity is recognized in profit or loss.

Financial Liabilities and Equity Instruments

Classification as debt or equity
Debt and equity instruments issued by the Company are classified as either financial liabilities or as equity in accordance with the substance of the contractual arrangements and the definitions of a financial liability and an equity instrument.

Equity instruments
An equity instrument is any contract that evidences a residual interest in the assets of an entity after deducting all of its liabilities. Equity instruments issued by the Company are recognized at the proceeds received, net of direct issue costs.

Financial liabilities
Financial liabilities are subsequently measured either at amortized cost using effective interest method or at FVTPL.

Financial liabilities measured at FVTPL are derivative financial instruments that do not meet the criteria for hedge accounting, and they are stated at fair value, with any gains or losses arising on remeasurement recognized in profit or loss.

Financial liabilities other than those held for trading purposes and designated as at FVTPL are subsequently measured at amortized cost at the end of each reporting period.

Derecognition of financial liabilities
The Company derecognizes financial liabilities when, and only when, the Company’s obligations are discharged, cancelled or they expire. The difference between the carrying amount of the financial liability derecognized and the consideration paid and payable is recognized in profit or loss.

Derivative Financial Instruments

The Company enters into a variety of derivative financial instruments to manage its market risk exposure to foreign exchange rate, interest rate and equity price fluctuation, including forward exchange contracts, cross currency swap contracts, interest rate swaps and forward stock contracts.

Derivative financial instruments are initially recognized at fair value at the date the derivative contracts are entered into and are subsequently remeasured to their fair value at the end of each reporting period. The resulting gain or loss is recognized in profit or loss immediately unless the derivative financial instrument is designated and effective as a hedging instrument, in which event the timing of the recognition in profit or loss depends on the nature of the hedge relationship.

Changes in the fair value of derivative financial instruments that are designated and qualify as fair value hedges are recognized in profit or loss immediately, together with any changes in the fair value of the hedged asset or liability that are attributable to the hedged risk.

The effective portion of changes in the fair value of derivative financial instruments that are designated and qualify as cash flow hedges is recognized in other comprehensive income and accumulated under the heading of cash flow hedges reserve. Amounts previously recognized in other comprehensive income and accumulated in equity are reclassified to profit or loss in the period when the hedged item is recognized in profit or loss.

Inventories

Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value. Inventories are recorded at standard cost and adjusted to approximate weighted-average cost at the end of the reporting period. Net realizable value represents the estimated selling price of inventories less all estimated costs of completion and costs necessary to make the sale.

Investments Accounted for Using Equity Method

Investments accounted for using the equity method include investments in associates and interests in joint ventures.

An associate is an entity over which the Company has significant influence and that is neither a subsidiary nor a joint venture. Significant influence is the power to participate in the financial and operating policy decisions of the investee but is not control or joint control over those policies.

A joint venture is a contractual arrangement whereby the Company and other parties undertake an economic activity that is subject to joint control (i.e. when the strategic financial and operating policy decisions relating to the activities of the joint venture require the unanimous consent of the parties sharing control). Joint venture arrangements that involve the establishment of a separate entity in which each venturer has an interest are referred to as jointly controlled entities.

The operating results and assets and liabilities of associates and jointly controlled entities are incorporated in these consolidated financial statements using the equity method of accounting. Under the equity method, an investment in an associate or a jointly controlled entity is initially recognized in the consolidated statement of financial position at cost and adjusted thereafter to recognize the Company’s share of profit or loss and other comprehensive income of the associate and jointly controlled entity as well as the distribution received. The Company also recognized its share in the changes in the associates and jointly controlled entity.

Any excess of the cost of acquisition over the Company’s share of the net fair value of the identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities of an associate or a jointly controlled entity recognized at the date of acquisition is recognized as goodwill, which is included within the carrying amount of the investment.

Any excess of the Company’s share of the net fair value of the identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities over the cost of acquisition, after reassessment, is recognized immediately in profit or loss.

When necessary, the entire carrying amount of the investment (including goodwill) is tested for impairment as a single asset by comparing its recoverable amount (higher of value in use and fair value less costs to sell) with its carrying amount. Any impairment loss recognized forms part of the carrying amount of the investment. Any reversal of that impairment loss is recognized to the extent that the recoverable amount of the investment subsequently increases.

The Company discontinues the use of the equity method from the date when the Company ceases to have significant influence over an associate. When the Company retains an interest in the former associate, the Group measures the retained interest at fair value at that date. The difference between the carrying amount of the associate at the date the equity method was discontinued, and the fair value of any retained interest and any proceeds from disposing of a part interest in the associate is included in the determination of the gain or loss on disposal of the associate. In addition, the Company shall account for all amounts recognized in other comprehensive income in relation to that associate on the same basis as would be required if the associate had directly disposed of the related assets or liabilities.

When the Company subscribes to additional shares in an associate or jointly controlled entity at a percentage different from its existing ownership percentage, the resulting carrying amount of the investment differs from the amount of the Company’s proportionate interest in the net assets of the associate or jointly controlled entity. The Company records such a difference as an adjustment to investments with the corresponding amount charged or credited to capital surplus. If the Company’s ownership interest is reduced due to the additional subscription to the shares of associate or joint controlled entity by other investors, the proportionate amount of the gains or losses previously recognized in other comprehensive income in relation to that associate or jointly controlled entity shall be reclassified to profit or loss on the same basis as would be required if the associate or jointly controlled entity had directly disposed of the related assets or liabilities.

When a consolidated entity transacts with an associate or a joint controlled entity, profits and losses resulting from the transactions with the associate or jointly controlled entity are recognized in the Company’ consolidated financial statements only to the extent of interests in the associate or jointly controlled entity that are not owned by the Company.

Property, Plant and Equipment

Property, plant and equipment are measured at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment. Costs include any incremental costs that are directly attributable to the construction or acquisition of the item of property, plant and equipment.

Properties in the course of construction for production, supply or administrative purposes are carried at cost, less any recognized impairment loss. Such properties are classified to the appropriate categories of property, plant and equipment when completed and ready for intended use. Depreciation of these assets, on the same basis as other property assets, commences when the assets are ready for their intended use.

Depreciation is recognized so as to write off the cost of the assets less their residual values over their useful lives, and it is computed using the straight-line method over the following estimated useful lives: land improvements - 20 years; buildings - 10 to 20 years; machinery and equipment - 3 to 5 years; office equipment - 3 to 15 years; and leased assets - 20 years. The estimated useful lives, residual values and depreciation method are reviewed at the end of each reporting period, with the effect of any changes in estimates accounted for on a prospective basis. Land is not depreciated.

Assets held under finance leases are depreciated over their expected useful lives on the same basis as owned assets. However, when there is no reasonable certainty that ownership will be obtained by the end of the lease term, assets are depreciated over the shorter of the lease term and their useful lives.

An item of property, plant and equipment is derecognized upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected to arise from the continued use of the assets. Any gain or loss arising on the disposal or retirement of an item of property, plant and equipment is determined as the difference between the sales proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and is recognized in profit or loss.

Leases

Leases are classified as finance lease whenever the terms of the lease transfer substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership to the lessee. All other leases are classified as operating leases.

The Company as lessor
Rental income from operating leases is recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the relevant lease.

The Company as lessee
Assets held under finance lease are initially recognized as assets of the Company at the fair value at the inception of the lease or, if lower, at the present value of the minimum lease payments. The corresponding liability to the lessor is included in the consolidated balance sheet as an obligation under finance lease.

Lease payments are apportioned between finance expense and reduction of the lease obligation so as to achieve a constant rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability.

Operating lease payments are recognized as an expense on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

Intangible Assets

Goodwill
Goodwill arising on an acquisition of a business is carried at cost as established at the date of acquisition of the business less accumulated impairment losses, if any.

Other intangible assets
Other separately acquired intangible assets with finite useful lives are carried at cost less accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses. Amortization is recognized using the straight-line method over the following estimated useful lives: Technology license fees - the estimated life of the technology or the term of the technology transfer contract; software and system design costs - 2 to 5 years; patent and others - the economic life or contract period. The estimated useful life and amortization method are reviewed at the end of each reporting period, with the effect of any changes in estimate being accounted for on a prospective basis.

Impairment of Tangible and Intangible Assets

Goodwill
Goodwill is not amortized and instead is tested for impairment annually, or more frequently when there is an indication that the cash generating unit may be impaired. For the purpose of impairment testing, goodwill is allocated to each of the Company’s cash-generating units or groups of cash-generating units that are expected to benefit from the synergies of the combination. If the recoverable amount of a cash-generating unit is less than its carrying amount, the difference is allocated first to reduce the carrying amount of any goodwill allocated to such cash generating unit and then to the other assets of the cash generating unit pro rata based on the carrying amount of each asset in the cash generating unit. Any impairment loss for goodwill is recognized directly in profit or loss. An impairment loss recognized for goodwill is not reversed in subsequent periods.

Other tangible and intangible assets
At the end of each reporting period, the Company reviews the carrying amounts of its tangible and intangible assets to determine whether there is any indication that those assets have suffered an impairment loss. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of the asset is estimated in order to determine the extent of the impairment loss. When it is not possible to estimate the recoverable amount of an individual asset, the Company estimates the recoverable amount of the cash-generating unit to which the asset belongs. When a reasonable and consistent basis of allocation can be identified, corporate assets are also allocated to individual cash-generating units, or otherwise they are allocated to the smallest group of cash-generating units for which a reasonable and consistent allocation basis can be identified.

Recoverable amount is the higher of fair value less costs to sell and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset for which the estimates of future cash flows have not been adjusted.

If the recoverable amount of an asset or cash-generating unit is estimated to be less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount of the asset or cash-generating unit is reduced to its recoverable amount. An impairment loss is recognized immediately in profit or loss.

When an impairment loss subsequently reverses, the carrying amount of the asset or a cash-generating unit is increased to the revised estimate of its recoverable amount, but so that the increased carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined had no impairment loss been recognized for the asset or cash-generating unit in prior years. A reversal of an impairment loss is recognized immediately in profit or loss.

Provision

Provisions are recognized when the Company has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event, it is probable that the Company will be required to settle the obligation, and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation.

The amount recognized as a provision is the best estimate of the consideration required to settle the present obligation at the end of the reporting period, taking into account the risks and uncertainties surrounding the obligation. When a provision is measured using the cash flows estimated to settle the present obligation, its carrying amount is the present value of those cash flows.

Revenue Recognition

Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable. Revenue is reduced for estimated customer returns, rebates and other similar allowances.

Sale of goods
Revenue from the sale of goods is recognized when the goods are delivered and titles have passed, at which time all the following conditions are satisfied:

  • The Company has transferred to the buyer the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods;
  • The Company retains neither continuing managerial involvement to the degree usually associated with ownership nor effective control over the goods sold;
  • The amount of revenue can be measured reliably;
  • It is probable that the economic benefits associated with the transaction will flow to the Company; and
  • The costs incurred or to be incurred in respect of the transaction can be measured reliably.

In principle, payment term granted to customers is due 30 days from the invoice date or 30 days from the end of the month of when the invoice is issued. Due to the short term nature of the receivables from sale of goods with the immaterial discounted effect, the Company measures them at the original invoice amounts without discounting.

Royalties, dividend and interest income
Revenue from royalties is recognized on an accrual basis in accordance with the substance of the relevant agreement (provided that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the amount of revenue can be measured reliably).

Dividend income from investments is recognized when the shareholder’s right to receive payment has been established, provided that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Group and the amount of income can be measured reliably.

Interest income from a financial asset is recognized when it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the amount of income can be measured reliably. Interest income is accrued on a time basis, by reference to the principal outstanding and at the effective interest rate applicable.

Retirement Benefits

For defined contribution retirement benefit plans, payments to the benefit plan are recognized as an expense when the employees have rendered service entitling them to the contribution. For defined benefit retirement benefit plans, the cost of providing benefit is recognized based on actuarial calculations.

For defined benefit retirement benefit plans, the cost of providing benefits is determined using the Projected Unit Credit Method, with actuarial calculations being carried out at year end. Actuarial gains and losses are reported in retained earnings in the period that they are recognized as other comprehensive income.

Share-based Payment Arrangements

The Company elected to take the optional exemption under IFRS 1 for the share-based payment transactions granted and vested before the date of transition to Taiwan-IFRSs. There were no stock options granted prior to but unvested at the date of transition. Please refer to the description in Note 43 b.

The compensation costs of employee stock options that were granted after January 1, 2012 are measured at the fair value of the stock options at the grant date. The fair value of the stock option granted determined at the grant date of the stock options is expensed on a straight-line basis over the vesting period, based on the Company’s estimate of the number of stock options that will eventually vest, with a corresponding increase in capital surplus - employee stock option. The estimate is revised if subsequent information indicates that the number of stock options expected to vest differs from original estimates.

Taxation

Income tax expense represents the sum of the tax currently payable and deferred tax.

Current tax
Income tax on unappropriated earnings (excluding earnings from foreign consolidated subsidiaries) at a rate of 10% is expensed in the year the shareholders approved the appropriation of earnings which is the year subsequent to the year the earnings are generated.

Adjustments of prior years’ tax liabilities are added to or deducted from the current year’s tax provision.

Deferred tax
Deferred tax is recognized on temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities in the consolidated financial statements and the corresponding tax bases used in the computation of taxable profit. Deferred tax liabilities are generally recognized for all taxable temporary differences. Deferred tax assets are generally recognized for all deductible temporary differences, net operating loss carryforwards and unused tax credits to the extent that it is probable that taxable profits will be available against which those deductible temporary differences can be utilized.

Deferred tax liabilities are recognized for taxable temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiaries and associates, and interests in joint ventures, except where the Company is able to control the reversal of the temporary difference and it is probable that the temporary difference will not reverse in the foreseeable future. Deferred tax assets arising from deductible temporary differences associated with such investments are only recognized to the extent that it is probable that there will be sufficient taxable profits against which to utilize the benefits of the temporary differences and they are expected to reverse in the foreseeable future.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at the end of each reporting period and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profits will be available to allow all or part of the deferred tax asset to be recovered. The deferred tax assets which originally not recognized is also reviewed at the end of each reporting period and recognized to the extent that it is probable that sufficient taxable profits will be available to allow all or part of the deferred tax asset to be recovered.

Deferred tax liabilities and assets are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the year in which the liability is settled or the asset is realized, based on tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period. The measurement of deferred tax liabilities and assets reflects the tax consequences that would follow from the manner in which the Company expects, at the end of the reporting period, to recover or settle the carrying amount of its assets and liabilities.

Current and deferred tax for the year
Current and deferred tax are recognized in profit or loss, except when they relate to items that are recognized in other comprehensive income or directly in equity, in which case, the current and deferred tax are also recognized in other comprehensive income or directly in equity, respectively.