Annual Reports  >  2014  >  Financial Highlights > Risk Management
Risk Management
繁中

Our Board of Directors plays a key role in helping the Company identify and manage economic risks. Our Risk Management organization periodically briefs our Audit Committee on the ever-changing risk environment facing TSMC, the focus of our enterprise risk management, and risk assessment and mitigation efforts. Our Audit Committee’s Chairperson also briefs the Board on such discussion and actions.

TSMC and its subsidiaries are committed to proactively and cost effectively integrating and managing strategic, operational, financial and hazardous risks together with potential consequences to operations and revenue. TSMC operates an Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) program based on both its corporate vision and its long-term sustainability, and responsibility to both industry and society. ERM seeks to provide the appropriate management of risks by TSMC on behalf of all stakeholders. A Risk MAP that considers likelihood and impact severity is applied for identifying and prioritizing corporate risks. Various risk treatment strategies are also adopted in response to identified corporate risks. The Company’s risk management includes the management of “Strategic Risks”, “Operational Risks”, “Financial Risks”, “Hazardous Risks”, “Risks Associated with Climate Change and Non-compliance with Environmental and Climate Related Laws and Regulations, and Other International Laws, Regulations and Accords”, etc.

To reduce TSMC’s supply chain risks, a cross-function task force comprised of members from fab operations, material management, risk management and quality system management worked with TSMC’s suppliers to develop business continuity plans, and enhance supply chain resilience capability to effectively manage the risks faced by its suppliers. As a result of those efforts, there was no interruption in TSMC’s supply lines in 2014.

As TSMC continued to expand production capacity with advanced technology in 2014, seismic protection engineering design, risk treatment practices and green factory projects were initiated and implemented, beginning in the design phase for all new fabs.

Risk Management (RM) Organization Chart

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RM Steering Committee

Consists of functional heads (with Internal Audit head sitting as an observer);
Reports to Audit Committee;
Reviews risk control progress; and
Identifies and approves the prioritized risk lists.

RM Executive Council

Consists of representatives from each function;
Identifies and assesses risks;
Implements risk control program & ensures effectiveness;
Improves transparency & how risks are managed.

RM Program

Coordinates the RM RM Executive Council activities;
Facilitates functional risk management activities;
Initiates cross function communication for risk mitigation; and
Consolidates ERM reports into the RM Steering Committee.

Strategic Risks

Risks Associated with Changes in Technology and Industry

Industry Developments

The electronics industries and semiconductor market are cyclical and subject to significant, and often rapid, increases and decreases in product demand. TSMC’s semiconductor foundry business is affected by market conditions in such highly cyclical electronics and semiconductor industries. Variations in order levels from customers may result in volatility in the Company’s revenues and earnings.

From time to time, the electronics and semiconductor industries have experienced significant, and sometimes prolonged, periods of downturns and overcapacity. Because TSMC is, and will continue to be, dependent on the requirements of electronics and semiconductor companies for its services, periods of downturn and overcapacity in the general electronics and semiconductor industries could lead to reduced demand for overall semiconductor foundry services, including TSMC’s services. If TSMC cannot take appropriate actions such as reducing its costs to sufficiently offset declines in demand, the Company’s revenues, margins and earnings will suffer during periods of downturn and overcapacity.

Changes in Technology

The semiconductor industry and its technologies are constantly changing. TSMC competes by developing process technologies using increasingly advanced nodes and on manufacturing products with more functions. TSMC also competes by developing new derivative technologies. If TSMC does not anticipate these changes in technologies and rapidly develop new and innovative technologies, or if the Company’s competitors unforeseeably gain sudden access to additional technologies, TSMC may not be able to provide foundry services on competitive terms. In addition, TSMC’s customers have significantly decreased the time in which their products or services are launched into the market. If TSMC is unable to meet these shorter product time-to-market, TSMC risks losing these customers. Consumer driven products such as mobile devices have shifted the direction of the global technology market. In addition, customers demand more variety of technology offerings and faster delivery of these technologies. Also, we have seen an increasing concentration of customers and competition (all further discussed among these risk factors). If TSMC is unable to innovate new technologies that meet the demands of its customers or overcome the above factors, its revenues may decline significantly. Although TSMC has concentrated on maintaining a competitive edge in research and development, if TSMC fails to achieve advances in technologies or processes, it may become less competitive.

Regarding the response measures for the above-mentioned risks, please refer to “TSMC Position, Differentiation and Strategy” of this Annual Report.

Risks Associated with Decrease in Demand and Average Selling Price

A vast majority of the Company’s revenue is derived from customers who use TSMC’s services in communication devices, personal computers, consumer electronics products and industrial/standard products. Any significant decrease in the demand for any one of these products may decrease the demand for such other products as well as overall global semiconductor foundry services, including TSMC’s services, and may adversely affect the Company’s revenues. Further, a significant portion of TSMC’s operating costs is fixed because the Company owns most of its manufacturing capacities. In general, these costs do not decline when customer demand or TSMC’s capacity utilization rates drop, and thus declines in customer demand, among other factors, may significantly decrease margins. Conversely, as product demand rises and factory utilization increases, the fixed costs are spread over increased output, which can improve TSMC’s margins. Additionally, the historical and current trend of declining average selling prices of end-use applications places downward pressure on the prices of the components that go into such applications. If the average selling prices of end-use applications continue to decrease, the pricing pressure on components produced by the Company may lead to a reduction of TSMC’s revenues, margin and earnings.

Risks Associated with Competition

The markets for TSMC’s foundry services are highly competitive. The Company competes with other foundry service providers, as well as integrated device manufacturers that devote a significant portion of their manufacturing capacity to foundry operations. Some of these companies may have access to more advanced technologies and greater financial and other resources than TSMC, such as the possibility of receiving direct or indirect government bailout/economic stimulus funds or other incentives that are unavailable to us. The Company’s competition may, from time to time, also decide to undertake aggressive pricing initiatives in one or more technology nodes. Increases in these competitive activities may decrease TSMC’s customer base, TSMC’s average selling prices, or both.

For example, over the past few years, TSMC has seen the rise of certain companies with the capability of providing foundry services. These companies are committed to trying to attract TSMC’s customers. If TSMC is unable to compete with any and each of these new competitors with better technologies and manufacturing capacity and capabilities, it risks losing customers to these new contenders.

The Company competes primarily on the basis of process technology, manufacturing quality and service. The level of competition differs according to the process technology involved. For example, in more mature technologies, competitors tend to be more numerous and specialized. Some companies compete with TSMC in selected geographic regions or in application end markets. In recent years, substantial investments have been made by others to establish new pure-play foundry companies in mainland China and elsewhere, or to spin off the manufacturing operations of integrated device manufacturers (IDMs) and transform them into a pure-play foundry company.

Risks Associated with Changes in the Government Policies and Regulatory Environment

TSMC management closely monitors all domestic and foreign governmental policies and regulations that might impact TSMC’s business and financial operations. As of February 28, 2015, the following changes or developments in governmental policies and regulations may influence the Company’s business operations:

The Taiwan Financial Supervisory Commission (FSC) requires listed companies, starting from January 1, 2015, to prepare their consolidated financial statements in accordance with the 2013 version of following FSC endorsed standards and interpretations: “International Financial Reporting Standards,” “International Accounting Standards,” and relevant Interpretations (collectively, “2013 Taiwan-IFRSs version”). TSMC has disclosed the effects arising from the significant differences between 2013 Taiwan-IFRSs version and the current accounting policy in TSMC’s 2014 consolidated financial statements.

The “Labor Safety and Health Act” of Taiwan was amended and renamed as the “Occupational Safety and Health Act” in July, 2013. Highlights of the amendment include: expanding the applicability of the Act to employees of all occupations; building a comprehensive occupational disease prevention system; strengthening the protection of the mental and physical health of workers; stipulating maternity protection and employment equality; and requiring high-risk business to regularly implement safety assessments. Ancillary regulations such as Occupational Safety and Health Measures Rule and its enforcement Guidelines, Maternity Protection Rule, and the regulations governing use of chemicals have been issued. TSMC over the years has been consistently maintaining a robust safe and healthy work environment and protective measures in place, and has taken proper measures to maintain the safety and health of its workplace in compliance with the aforesaid laws and regulations. In addition, the Taiwan legislature has been studying relevant laws relating to environmental protection and employee safety and health protection (e.g. “Greenhouse Gas Reduction Act” and “Energy Tax Act”). Though the “Greenhouse Gas Reduction Act” has not been passed, TSMC has been implementing various long-term energy saving and carbon reduction programs since 2000. As to the proposed “Energy Tax Act,” there has been no concrete guidance or law issuing from the Taiwan government as of yet, so the impacts of such law are indeterminable at the moment. However, it is very likely that such law may increase the operating costs of the Company.

Other than the above laws and regulations, it is not expected that other governmental policies or regulatory changes would materially impact TSMC’s operations and financial condition.

Operational Risks

Risks Associated with Capacity Expansion

TSMC performs long-term market demand forecasts to estimate market and general economic conditions for its products and services. Based upon these estimates, TSMC manages its overall capacity in accordance with market demand. Because market conditions may vary significantly and unexpectedly, TSMC’s market demand forecast may change significantly at any time. Further, since certain manufacturing lines or tools in some of TSMC’s manufacturing facilities may be suspended or shut down temporarily during periods of decreased demand, the Company may not be able to ramp up in a timely manner during periods of increased demand. During periods of continued decline in demand, operating facilities may not be able to absorb and complete in a timely manner any outstanding orders re-directed from shuttered facilities.

Recently, TSMC has been adding capacity to its 12-inch wafer fabs in the Hsinchu Science Park, Southern Taiwan Science Park and Central Taiwan Science Park, based on market demand forecasts taking into account the demand forecasts of TSMC’s customers. As a result, the total monthly capacity of the Company’s 12-inch wafer fabs was increased from 414,680 wafers as of December 31, 2013 to 494,696 wafers as of December 31, 2014. Expansion and modification of the Company’s production facilities will, among other factors, increase TSMC’s costs. For example, the Company will need to purchase additional equipment, train personnel to operate the new equipment, or hire additional personnel. If TSMC cannot increase its net revenue accordingly, in order to offset these higher costs, TSMC’s financial performance may be adversely affected.

TSMC has established systems and processes to evaluate and forecast market demand and refers to these forecasts and evaluations when considering whether to expand or reduce capacity. As of the date of this Annual Report, the benefits brought about by such capacity expansion were in line with TSMC’s expectations.

Risks Associated with Sales Concentration

Over the years, TSMC’s customer profile and the nature of its customers’ business have changed dramatically. While it generates revenue from hundreds of customers worldwide, TSMC’s ten largest customers accounted for approximately 62% and 63% of net revenue in 2013 and 2014, respectively, and the Company’s largest customer accounted for approximately 22% and 21% of net revenue in 2013 and 2014, respectively.

This customer concentration results in part from the changing dynamics of the electronics industry with the structural shift to mobile devices and applications and software that provide the content for such devices. There are only a limited number of customers who are successfully exploiting this new business model paradigm.

Also, in order to respond to the new business model paradigm, TSMC has seen the change of nature in its customers’ business models. For example, there is a growing trend toward the rise of system houses that operate in a manner that makes their products and services more marketable to the changing consumer market. The loss of, or significant curtailment of, purchases by one or more of the Company’s top customers, including curtailment due to increased competitive pressures, industrial consolidation, a change in their designs, or change in their manufacturing sourcing policies, or practices of these customers, or the timing of customer or distributor inventory adjustments, or change in its major customers’ business models may adversely affect TSMC’s results of operations and financial condition.

TSMC maintains a close watch on these trends and works closely with its customers to respond to these changes and to strengthen the Company’s market position.

Risks Associated with Purchase Concentration

Raw Materials

TSMC’s production operations require that it obtains adequate supplies of raw materials, such as silicon wafers, gases, chemicals and photoresist, on a timely basis. In the past, shortages in the supply of some materials, whether by specific vendors or by the semiconductor industry generally, have resulted in occasional industry-wide price adjustments and delivery delays. In addition, major natural disasters, political or economic turmoil occurring within the country of origin of such raw materials may also significantly disrupt the availability of such raw materials or increase their prices. Also, since we procure some of our raw materials from sole-source suppliers, there is a risk that our need for such raw materials may not be met or that back-up supplies may not be readily available. Our revenue and earnings could decline if we are unable to obtain adequate supplies of the necessary raw materials in a timely manner or if there are significant increases in the costs of raw materials that we cannot pass on to our customers. To reduce the supply chain risk and to manage the cost actively, TSMC is committing resources toward developing new supply sources. In addition, TSMC continually encourages its suppliers to reduce their supply chain risk by decentralizing production plants, and to intensify their cost competitiveness by moving their production site to Taiwan from high-cost areas.

In the meantime, being aware of the risk of fewer back-up suppliers, TSMC is engaging early and deeply with suppliers on managing quality, and capacity issues because ramping at unprecedented speed leaves TSMC with very little time to re-tune its process. At leading technology nodes, TSMC requires world-class material quality, manufactured at world-class facilities, with world-class processes. In regard to streamlining the supply chain risk management, TSMC intensifies supplier site audits and extends supply chain best practices to suppliers’ suppliers to mitigate capacity and quality risks. Moreover, TSMC continually refines its planning system and enhances demand forecast alignments with critical suppliers for adequate supply capacity planning, especially for steep ramping of new nodes. TSMC developed a Sustainability Assessment for our critical suppliers. Any regulatory violations or any environmental impact event as well as failure of meeting TSMC’s expectation in sustainability requirements may result in business reduction or termination.

Equipment

The Company’s operations and ongoing expansion plans depend on its ability to obtain an appropriate amount of equipment and related services from a limited number of suppliers in a market that is characterized from time to time by limited supply and long delivery cycles. During such times, supplier-specific or industry-wide lead times for delivery can be as long as six months or more. To better manage its supply chain, the Company has implemented various business models and risk management contingencies with suppliers to shorten the procurement lead time. Further, the growing complexities, especially in next-generation lithographic technologies, may delay the timely availability of the equipment and parts needed to exploit time sensitive business opportunities and also increase the market price for such equipment and parts. If TSMC is unable to obtain equipment in a timely manner to fulfill its customers’ demands on technology and production capacity, or at a reasonable cost, its financial condition and results of operations could be negatively affected.

Risks Associated with Intellectual Property Rights

The Company’s ability to compete successfully and to achieve future growth will depend in part on the continued strength of its intellectual property portfolio. While TSMC actively enforces and protects its intellectual property rights, there can be no assurance that its efforts will be adequate to prevent the misappropriation or improper use of its proprietary technologies, trade secrets, software or know-how. Also, the Company cannot assure that, as its business or business models expand into new areas, or otherwise, it will be able to develop independently the technologies, trade secrets, patents, software or know-how necessary to conduct its business or that it can do so without unknowingly infringing the intellectual property rights of others. As a result, TSMC may have to rely on, to a certain degree, licensed technologies and patent licenses from others. To the extent that the Company relies on licenses from others, there can be no assurance that it will be able to obtain any or all of the necessary licenses in the future on terms it considers reasonable or at all. The lack of necessary licenses could expose TSMC to claims for damages and/or injunctions from third parties, as well as claims for indemnification by its customers in instances where it has contractually agreed to indemnify its customers against damages resulting from infringement claims.

TSMC has received, from time-to-time, communications from third parties asserting that its technologies, manufacturing processes, the design of the integrated circuits made by TSMC or the use by its customers of semiconductors made by TSMC may infringe upon their patents or other intellectual property rights. Because of the nature of the industry, the Company may continue to receive such communications in the future. In some instances, these disputes have resulted in litigation. Recently, there has been a notable increase in the number of claims or lawsuits initiated by certain litigious, non-practicing entities and these litigious, non-practicing entities are also becoming more aggressive in their monetary demands and requests for court-issued injunctions. Such lawsuits or claims may increase TSMC’s cost of doing business and may potentially be extremely disruptive if the plaintiffs succeed in blocking the trade of its products and services. If TSMC fail to obtain or maintain certain technologies or intellectual property licenses and, if litigation relating to alleged intellectual property matters occurs, it could prevent the Company from manufacturing or selling particular products or applying particular technologies, which could reduce its opportunities to generate revenues.

TSMC has taken other measures to minimize potential loss of shareholder value arising from intellectual property claims and litigation filed against the Company. These measures include: obtaining licenses from certain semiconductor and other technology companies; timely securing of intellectual property rights for defensive and/or offensive protection of TSMC technology and business; aggressively defending against frivolous litigation; and acquiring or licensing strategic intellectual property rights necessary to protect its technologies and business offerings.

Risks Associated with Litigation

As is the case with many companies in the semiconductor industry, TSMC has received from time-to-time communications from third parties asserting that its technologies, its manufacturing processes, or the design of the semiconductors made by TSMC or the use of those semiconductors by its customers may infringe upon their patents or other intellectual property rights. These assertions have at times resulted in litigation by or against the Company and settlement payments by the Company. Irrespective of the validity of these claims, TSMC could incur significant costs in the defense thereof or could suffer adverse effects on its operations.

In June 2010, Keranos, LLC. filed a complaint in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Texas alleging that TSMC, TSMC North America, and several other leading technology companies infringe three expired U.S. patents. In response, TSMC, TSMC North America, and several co-defendants in the Texas case filed a lawsuit against Keranos in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California in November 2010, seeking a judgment declaring that they did not infringe the asserted patents, and that those patents were invalid. These two litigations have been consolidated into a single lawsuit in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Texas. In February 2014, the Court entered a final judgment in favor of TSMC, dismissing all of Keranos’ claims against TSMC with prejudice. The final judgment is currently being appealed to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. The outcome cannot be determined at this time.

In December 2010, Ziptronix, Inc. filed a complaint in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California accusing TSMC, TSMC North America and one other company of infringing several U.S. patents. In September 2014, the Court granted summary judgment of noninfringement in favor of TSMC and TSMC North America. Ziptronix, Inc. can appeal the Court’s order. The outcome cannot be determined at this time.

In September 2013, Zond Inc. filed a complaint in U.S. District Court for the District of Massachusetts against TSMC, certain TSMC subsidiaries and other companies alleging infringing of several U.S. patents. Subsequently, TSMC and Zond initiated additional legal actions in the U.S. District Courts for the District of Delaware and the District of Massachusetts over several additional patents owned by Zond. In March 2015, all pending litigations between the parties in the U.S. District Courts for the District of Massachusetts and the District of Delaware were dismissed.

In December 2013, Tela Innovations, Inc. filed complaints in the U.S. District Court for the District of Delaware and in the United States International Trade Commission accusing TSMC and TSMC North America of infringing one U.S. patent. In January 2014, TSMC filed a lawsuit in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California against Tela for trade secret misappropriation and breach of contract. In September 2014, all pending litigations between the parties in the U.S. District Court for the District of Delaware, the ITC and the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California were dismissed.

In March 2014, DSS Technology Management, Inc. filed a complaint in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Texas alleging that TSMC, TSMC North America, TSMC Development, Inc., and several other companies infringe one U.S. patent. TSMC Development, Inc. has subsequently been dismissed. The outcome cannot be determined at this time.

Other than the matters described above, TSMC was not involved in any other material litigation in 2014 and is not currently involved in any other material litigation.

Risks Associated with Mergers and Acquisitions

As of the date of this Annual Report, there were no such risks for TSMC.

Risks Associated with Recruiting and Retaining Qualified Personnel

The Company relies on the continued services and contributions of its executive officers, skilled technical personnel, personnel of other expertise and direct labors. TSMC’s business could suffer if it loses, for whatever reasons, the services and contributions of some of these personnel and it cannot adequately replace them. The Company may be required to increase or reduce the number of employees in connection with any business expansion or contraction, in accordance with market demand for its products and services. Since there is intense competition for the recruitment of these personnel, the Company cannot ensure it will be able to fulfill its personnel requirements in a timely manner during an economic upturn. However, no such incident has happened to TSMC as of the date of this annual report.

TSMC provides varied and competitive compensation programs, and is generous in sharing its long-term business achievements with the employees. Furthermore, in order to attract and retain talents, the Company is dedicated to providing a timely distribution of employees’ cash bonus from its profits. TSMC believes that by rewarding employees’ hard work in a timely fashion, it not only encourages employees to contribute consistently to ensure the success of the Company, but also links their interests with those of TSMC’s shareholders.

Future R&D Plans and Expected R&D Spending

For additional details, please refer to “Future R&D Plans” of this Annual Report.

Changes in Corporate Image and Impact on Company’s Crisis Management

TSMC has established an excellent corporate image around the world based on its core values of “Integrity, Commitment, Innovation, and Customer Trust,” as well as its outstanding operations, rigorous corporate governance, and dedication to corporate social responsibility to pursue sustainable development, equality and justice, and a harmonious society to live and work.

TSMC was honored with awards for its achievements in operations, corporate governance, innovation, profit growth, investor relations, and other fields in 2014. Amid TSMC’s continuing efforts to be a better corporate citizen and carry out its social responsibilities, the Company was not only selected as a component of the Dow Jones Sustainability Index (DJSI) for a 14th consecutive year, but also recognized by the DJSI as the Semiconductors and Semiconductor Equipment Industry Group Leader for a second straight year, further strengthening the Company’s public reputation. TSMC was the only Taiwan corporation to be named a leader of one of the DJSI’s 24 industry groups.

In addition, TSMC’s awards in 2014 include the R.O.C. Executive Yuan National Sustainable Development Award; The Taiwan Institute for Sustainable Energy 2014 Taiwan Corporate Sustainability Award “Gold Medal For Sustainability Report and Taiwan Top 10 Sustainability Benchmark Award”; No.1 in the R.O.C. Ministry of Economic Affairs “Top 20 Innovative Taiwan Companies”; The R.O.C. Ministry of Economic Affairs Industrial Development Bureau “Green Factory Label”; The R.O.C. Environmental Protection Administration “Annual Enterprise Environmental Protection Award”; The R.O.C. Environmental Protection Administration “Energy Conservation and Carbon Reduction Action Mark”; The R.O.C. Environmental Protection Administration “Enterprise Green Procurement Award”; The Science Park “Low Carbon Enterprise Award”; The Science Park Labor Health and Safety Achievement Award; The R.O.C. Ministry of Labor “Work-Life Balance Award,” highest honors; The R.O.C. Ministry of Labor “Excellence in Labor Safety and Hygiene Award”; The Financial Times-Standard Chartered Taiwan Business Awards for “Economic Contribution – Large Company” and “Responsible Business – Large Company”; Named “Most Admired Company in Taiwan” by CommonWealth Magazine; The CommonWealth Magazine Corporate Citizenship Award; The CommonWealth Magazine “Theme of the Year” Award for Corporate Governance; First Prize in the Environmental Protection Category for the GlobalViews Magazine Corporate Social Responsibility Award; No.1 in 104 Corporation poll of “Medium to Large Corporations Most Attractive to New Job-Seekers”

As an important member of the technology industry, TSMC has always endeavored to act as a positive force in society, and maintains departments such as Brand Management, Customer Service, Public Relations, Employee Relations, Investor Relations, Risk Management, Fab Industrial Safety and Environmental Protection, Internal Audit, and the TSMC Foundation to coordinate the Company’s resources and further enhance TSMC’s positive corporate image.

To address potential events that may affect the Company’s public image, including natural disasters, fires, workplace accidents, power outages, water shortages and workplace injuries, TSMC maintains an Emergency Response Procedure Manual, and health and safety supervisors for each fab hold meetings of the “Environment, Health, and Safety Technical Board” every month. In addition, relevant departments hold regular drills and continuously improve their emergency response and notification procedures. At the same time, TSMC has established communications criteria for all types of stakeholders, and the Public Relations Department is responsible for external communications. In the event of the above emergencies, all departments immediately deploy emergency response measures to reduce casualties and minimize the impact on the surrounding environment, Company property, and manufacturing operations, and also alert the Public Relations Department at the first stage of response to ensure smooth channels of communications to maintain the Company’s image.

Risks Associated with Change in Management

As of the date of this Annual Report, there were no such risks for TSMC.

Financial Risks

Internal Management of Economic Risks

Interest Rate Fluctuation

TSMC’s exposure to interest rate risks derives primarily from short-term borrowing and long-term debt obligations incurred in the normal course of business. In order to limit its exposure to interest rate risks, TSMC finances its funding needs primarily through internal generation of cash and the issuance of long-term, fixed-rate debt. On the asset side, TSMC places its cash on hand mainly in very short tenor time deposits. Furthermore, the primary objective of TSMC’s cash investments in fixed income securities is to preserve principal in highly liquid markets. In order to maintain the Company’s liquidity profile, the majority of fixed income securities are at the short end of the yield curve.

Foreign Exchange Volatility

More than half of TSMC’s capital expenditures and manufacturing costs are denominated in currencies other than NT dollars, primarily in US dollars, Japanese yen and Euros. In 2014, more than 90% of the Company’s sales were denominated in US dollars and currencies other than NT dollars. Therefore, any significant fluctuation to its disadvantage in such exchange rates would have an adverse effect on TSMC’s financial condition. Specifically, based on TSMC’s 2014 results, every 1% depreciation of the US dollar against the NT dollar exchange rate may result in approximately 0.4 percentage point decrease in TSMC’s operating margin. TSMC utilizes short-term debt denominated in foreign currencies and derivative financial instruments, including currency forward contracts and cross currency swaps, to hedge our currency exposure.

Fluctuations in the exchange rate between the US dollar and the NT dollar may affect the US dollar value of the Company’s common shares and the market price of the Company’s American Depositary Shares (ADSs) and of any cash dividends paid in NT dollars on TSMC’s common shares represented by ADSs.

Inflation and Deflation and Resulting General Market Volatility

The world economy is becoming more vulnerable to sudden unexpected fluctuations in inflationary and deflationary expectations and conditions. Both high inflation and deflation adversely affect an economy, at both the macro and micro levels, by reducing economic efficiency and disrupting saving and investment decisions. These macro-economic changes have resulted in general world market volatility across all assets classes. Such fluctuations and volatility may negatively affect the costs of TSMC’s operations and the business operations of its customers who may be forced to plan their purchases of TSMC’s goods and services within an uncertain economy. Therefore, the demand for TSMC’s products and services could unexpectedly fluctuate severely in accordance with expectations of inflation or deflation as affected by macro market volatility.

Risks Associated with External Financing

Planning capital requirements is challenging in the highly dynamic, cyclical and rapidly changing semiconductor industry, especially during times of general market volatility in the fixed income, interest rates, foreign currencies and equities markets. From time to time-and increasingly so for the foreseeable next few years-TSMC will continue to need significant capital to fund its operations and manage its capacity in accordance with market demand. TSMC’s continued ability to obtain sufficient external financing is subject to a variety of uncertainties, including:
its future financial condition, results of operations and cash flow;
market conditions for financing activities of semiconductor companies; and,
social, economic, financial, political and other conditions in Taiwan and elsewhere.

Sufficient external financing may not be available to the Company on a timely basis, on reasonable market terms, or at all. As a result, TSMC may be forced to curtail its expansion and modification plans or delay the deployment of new or expanded services until it obtains such financing.

Risks Associated with High-risk/high-leveraged Investment; Lending, Endorsements, and Guarantees for Other Parties; and Financial Derivative Transactions

TSMC did not make high-risk or high-leveraged financial investments during 2014 and up to the date of this report.

TSMC provided a guarantee to TSMC Global, a wholly owned subsidiary of TSMC, for its issuance of US dollar-denominated senior unsecured corporate bonds of US$1,500 million in April 2013. As of February 28, 2015, TSMC had an intercompany loan of US$153 million arranged among the Company’s subsidiaries, which was in compliance with relevant rules and regulations.

The financial transactions of a “derivative” nature that TSMC entered into were strictly for hedging purposes and not for any trading or speculative purpose. For more information, please refer to the Annual Report section (II), Financial Statements. The fair market value of our trading and available-for-sale financial securities are subject to prevailing market conditions and may fluctuate from TSMC’s carrying value from time to time, which may impact the returns of those securities.

To control various types of financial transactions, the Company has established internal policies and procedures based on sound financial and business practices, all in compliance with the relevant rules and regulations issued by the Taiwan Securities and Futures Bureau. TSMC policies and procedures include “Policies and Procedures for Financial Derivative Transactions,” “Procedures for Lending Funds to Other Parties,” “Procedures for Acquisition or Disposal of Assets,” and “Procedures for Endorsement and Guarantee”.

Risks Associated with Strategic Investments

From time to time, TSMC has made or will make a series of strategic investments. For example, TSMC has invested to develop potential business in solar power. There is no guarantee that any of such investments will be successful commercially. Any such investment will incur risks, which may result in losses even with careful management. Any such loss resulting from such investments may result in significant impairment charges, lower profit margin and ultimately lower distributable earnings. For further information on these investments, please refer to “Subsidiary Information and Other Special Notes” of this Annual Report.

Risks Associated with Impairment Charges

Under Taiwan-IFRSs, TSMC is required to evaluate its investments, tangible and intangible assets for impairment whenever triggering events or changes in circumstances indicate that the asset may be impaired. If certain criteria are met, TSMC is required to record an impairment charge. TSMC is also required under Taiwan-IFRSs to evaluate goodwill for impairment at least on an annual basis or more frequently whenever triggering events or changes in circumstances indicate that goodwill may be impaired and the carrying value may not be recoverable. TSMC holds investments in certain publicly listed and private companies, some of which have incurred certain impairment charges disclosed in the “Financial Information”.

The determination of an impairment charge at any given time is based on the expected results of the Company’s operations over a number of years subsequent to that time. As a result, an impairment charge is more likely to occur during a period when the Company’s operating results are otherwise already depressed.

TSMC has established the process and system to closely monitor and assess the risk of any impairment charge. However, the management is unable to estimate the extent or timing of any impairment charge for future years, or whether such impairment charge required may have a material adverse effect on the Company’s net income.

Hazardous Risks

TSMC maintains a comprehensive risk management system dedicated to the conservation of natural resources, the safety of people, and the protection of property. In order to effectively handle emergencies and natural disasters at each facility, management has developed comprehensive plans and procedures that focus on risk prevention, emergency response, crisis management, and business continuity. TSMC has adopted local and international standards for Environmental, Safety and Health (ESH) management. All TSMC manufacturing fabs have been ISO 14001 certified (Environmental Management System), OHSAS 18001 certified (Occupational Health and Safety Management System), and QC 080000 certified (Hazardous Substance Process Management System). All manufacturing fabs in Taiwan have also been TOSHMS (Taiwan Occupational Safety and Health Management System) certified. The new fabs will also acquire the above certificates within 18 months after volume production.

The Company pays special attention to preparedness for emergencies or disasters, such as typhoons, floods, droughts caused by climate change, earthquakes, environmental contamination, large-scale product returns, service disruption of IT systems, strikes, pandemics (such as H1N1 influenza), and sudden and unexpected disruptions to the supply of raw materials or water, electricity, and other public utilities. TSMC has established a company-wide task force dedicated to managing the risk of a water shortage that might arise due to climate change. This task force keeps watch on the external supply and internal demand for water. Cross-company consolidations and external collaborations with public agencies are also ongoing in the industrial parks to ensure and sustain a stable water supply.

TSMC has further strengthened its business continuity plans, which include periodic risk assessment, risk mitigation, and implementation through the establishment of emergency task forces when necessary, combined with the preparation of a thorough analysis of the emergency, its impact, alternative actions, and solutions for each possible scenario together with appropriate precautionary and/or recovery measures. Each task force is given the responsibility of ensuring TSMC’s ability to conduct business while minimizing personal injury, business disruption, and financial impact under the circumstances. TSMC’s business continuity plan is periodically reviewed according to results of test scenarios or practical implementation for ensuring effective and successful business continuity. Customers are informed of TSMC’s strong business continuity capability in order to establish resilience and flexibility in both their supply chain and insurance placement. For the year 2014, and up to the date of this Annual Report, there have been no reportable material events that have necessitated the activation of such contingency plans.

The Company has also conducted a continuous improvement project, including evaluating building anti-seismic capability, holding earthquake emergency response drills, enhancing tool anchorage or seismic isolation facilities, training and preparedness for tool salvage, and has improved TSMC business continuity procedures with reference to ISO 22301 business continuity management.

TSMC and many of its suppliers use highly combustible and toxic materials in its manufacturing processes and are therefore subject to the risk of loss arising from explosion, fire, or environmental influences which cannot be completely eliminated. Although the Company maintains many overlapping risk prevention and protection systems, as well as comprehensive fire and casualty insurance, TSMC’s risk management and insurance coverage may not be sufficient to cover all of the Company’s potential losses. If any of TSMC’s fabs or vendor facilities were to be damaged, or cease operations as a result of an explosion, fire or environmental influences, it could reduce the Company’s manufacturing capacity and may cause it to lose important customers, thereby having a potentially adverse and material impact on TSMC’s financial performance. In addition to periodic fire protection system inspection and firefighting drills, the Company has also carried out a corporate-wide fire risk mitigation project focused on management and hardware improvements.

Risks Associated with Climate Change and Non-compliance with Environmental and Climate Related Laws and Regulations, and Other International Laws, Regulations and Accords

The manufacturing, assembling and testing of our products require the use of metals, chemicals and materials that are subject to environmental, climate-related, health and safety, and humanitarian conflict-free sourcing laws (such as the U.S. SEC rule for filing Form SD to disclose the origins of certain strategic minerals), regulations and guidelines issued worldwide.

Although TSMC may be eligible for various exemptions and/or extensions of time for compliance, the Company’s failure to comply with any of these applicable laws or regulations could result in:

significant penalties and legal liabilities, such as the denial of import permits;
the temporary or permanent suspension of production of the affected products;
unfavorable alterations in our manufacturing, fabrication and assembly and test processes;
challenges from our customers that place us at a significant competitive disadvantage, such as loss of actual or potential sales contracts in case we are unable to satisfy the conditions regarding conflict-free minerals sourcing laws or requirements by our customers;
restrictions on our operations or sales;
damages to our goodwill and reputation, and
loss of tax benefits, including termination of current tax incentives, disqualification of tax credit application and repayment of the tax benefits that we are not entitled to.

Existing and future environmental- and climate-related laws and regulations as well as applicable international accords to which TSMC are subject, could also require it, among other things, to do the following: (a) purchase, use or install expensive pollution control, reduction or remediation equipment; (b) implement climate change mitigation programs and “abatement or reduction of greenhouse gas emissions” programs, or “carbon credit trading” programs; (c) modify our product designs and manufacturing processes, or incur other significant expenses associated with such laws and regulations such as obtaining substitute raw materials or chemicals that may cost more or be less available for our operations. It is still unclear whether such necessary actions would affect the reliability or efficiency of our products and services.

The contingencies resulting from the actual and potential impact of local or international laws and regulations, as well as international accords on environmental or climate change, could harm the Company’s business and operational results by increasing expenses or requiring TSMC to alter its manufacturing, assembly and test processes.

Increasing climate change and environmental concerns could affect the results of our operations if any of our customers request that we provide products and services that exceed any existing standard(s) of environmental compliance. If TSMC is unable to offer such products or offer products that are compliant, but are not as reliable due to the lack of reasonably available alternative technologies or materials, it may lose market share to competitors.

In addition, the Company’s inability to timely obtain environmental related approvals needed to undertake the development and construction of a new fab or expansion project may delay, limit or increase the cost of our expansion plans that could also in turn adversely affect TSMC’s business and operational results. In light of increased public interest in environmental issues, the Company’s operations and expansion plans may be adversely affected or delayed responding to public concern and social environmental pressures even if the Company’s operations comply with all applicable laws and regulations.

Further, energy costs in general could increase significantly due to climate change and other regulations. Therefore, TSMC’s energy costs may increase significantly if utility or power companies pass on their costs, either fully or partially, such as those associated with carbon taxes, emission caps and carbon credit trading programs.

TSMC believes that climate change should be regarded as an important corporate risk, which must be controlled to improve our competitiveness. Climate change risks include legal risk, physical risk and other risks. TSMC’s control measures are as follows:

Climate Regulatory Risk Control

The greenhouse gas (GHG) control regulations and agreements of countries around the world are becoming increasingly stringent. Enterprises are legally required to regularly disclose GHG-related information, and also limit GHG emissions. The cost of production, including materials and energy, may also grow along with future legal requirements, such as carbon or energy taxes. TSMC continues to monitor legislative trends and communicate with various governments through industrial organizations and associations to set reasonable and feasible legal requirements.

Conflict Minerals Risk Control

For additional details, please refer to the section of “Supplier and Contractor Management” of “Safety and Health” of this Annual Report.

Climate Disaster Risk Control

Abnormal climate caused by the greenhouse effect has increased the frequency and severity of climate disasters-storms, floods, drought, and water shortages-causing considerable impacts on business operations and supply chains. TSMC believes that climate change control should take into account both mitigation and adaption, and this requires cooperation between industry and government to reduce risk. To ensure electricity and raw water supplies, therefore, in addition to water-saving measures at our own facilities and those of our upstream and downstream partners, TSMC participates in the Taiwan Science Park Industrial Union Experts Committee platform, and is actively involved in regular meetings with Taipower Company and the Taiwan Water Corporation to discuss supply and allocation for response issues.

Other Climate Risk Controls

Climate change is a concern to the global supply chain, necessitating energy conservation, carbon reduction, and disaster prevention. For example, The Electronic Industry Citizenship Coalition (EICC) has also required members’ suppliers to disclose GHG emissions information. TSMC not only discloses its own GHG emissions information each year, but it also assists and requires its suppliers to establish a GHG inventory system and conduct reduction programs. TSMC’s suppliers are required by TSMC to submit GHG emissions and reduction information as an important index of sustainability scoring in its procurement strategy.

To mitigate risks resulting from climate change, TSMC continues to actively carry out energy conservation measures, voluntary perfluorinated compounds (PFC) emission reduction projects, and GHG inventory and verification every year. TSMC has publicly disclosed climate change information every year through the following channels:

TSMC has disclosed GHG emissions and reduction-related information for evaluation by the Dow Jones Sustainability Index every year since 2001.
TSMC’s GHG-related information has been disclosed in its CSR report on the Company website annually since 2008. TSMC also provides information to customers and investors upon request.
Since 2005, TSMC has been participating in an annual survey held by the nonprofit Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP), which includes GHG emission and reduction information for all TSMC fabs and subsidiaries.
Since 2006, TSMC follows the ISO 14064-1 standard to conduct a GHG inventory and acquire verification by an accreditation agency every year. TSMC also voluntarily reports GHG inventory data to the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (EPA) and the Taiwan Semiconductor Industry Association (TSIA).

Other Risks

Potential Impact and Risks Associated with Sales of Significant Numbers of Shares by TSMC’s Directors, and/or Major Shareholders Who Own 10% or More of TSMC’s Total Outstanding Shares

The value of TSMC shareholders’ investment may be reduced by possible future sales of TSMC shares owned by the major shareholders.

One or more of our existing shareholders may, from time to time, dispose of significant numbers of our common shares or ADSs. For example, the National Development Fund, which owned 6.38% of TSMC’s outstanding shares as of February 28, 2015, has from time to time in the past sold our shares in the form of ADSs in several transactions.

Currently no shareholder owns 10% or more of TSMC’s total outstanding shares.

Risks Associated with Cyber Attacks

Even though we have established a comprehensive internet and computing security network, we cannot guarantee that our computing systems which control or maintain vital corporate functions like our manufacturing operations and enterprise accounting would be completely immune to crippling cyber viral attacks launched by third party to gain unauthorized access to our internal network systems to sabotage our operations and goodwill. In the event of a serious cyber attack, our systems may lose important corporate data and our production lines may be shutdown indefinitely pending the resolution of such attack. These cyber attacks may also attempt to steal our trade secrets and other intellectual properties and other sensitive information, such as personal information of our employees and proprietary information of our customers and other stakeholders. Malicious hackers may also try to introduce computer viruses or corrupted software into our network systems to disrupt our operations or spy for sensitive information. These attacks may result in us having to pay damages for our delayed or disrupted orders or incur significant expenses in attempting to re-establish control over our network. If we are not able to timely resolve the technical difficulties caused by such cyber attacks, our financial results as well as our commitments to our customers and other stakeholders may be materially impaired.

Other Material Risks

During 2014 and as of the date of this Annual Report, TSMC’s management is not aware of any other risk event that could impart a potentially material impact on the financial status of the Company.